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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2018

Comparative analysis of adaptive immune responses following experimental infections of cattle with bovine viral diarrhoea virus-1 and an Asiatic atypical ruminant pestivirus

Riitho, Victor; Larska, Magdalena; Strong, Rebecca; La Rocca, S. Anna; Locker, Nicolas; Alenius, Stefan; Steinbach, Falko; Liu, Lihong; Uttenthal, Ase; Graham, Simon P.


Atypical ruminant pestiviruses are closely related to the two bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) species, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. While there is evidence of cross-protective immune responses between BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, despite antigenic differences, there is little information on the antigenic cross-reactivity with atypical ruminant pestiviruses. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the specificity of antibody and T cell responses induced by experimental infection of calves with BVDV-1 strain Ho916, Th/04_KhonKaen (TKK), an Asiatic atypical ruminant pestivirus, or co-infection with both viruses. Homologous virus neutralization was observed in sera from both single virus infected and co-infected groups, while cross-neutralization was only observed in the TKK infected group. T cell IFN-gamma responses to both viruses were observed in the TKK infected animals, whereas Ho916 infected calves responded better to homologous virus. Specifically, IFN-gamma responses to viral non-structural protein, NS3, were observed in all infected groups while responses to viral glycoprotein, E2, were virus-specific. Broader antigen-specific cytokine responses were observed with similar trends between inoculation groups and virus species. The limited T cell and antibody immune reactivity of Ho916 inoculated animals to TKK suggests that animals vaccinated with current BVDV-1-based vaccines may not be protected against atypical ruminant pestiviruses. Crown Copyright (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


BVDV; Atypical pestivirus; Immune responses; Cross-reactivity

Published in

2018, volume: 36, number: 30, pages: 4494-4500

Authors' information

Riitho, Victor
Animal & Plant Health Agency
Larska, Magdalena
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences
Larska, Magdalena
National Veterinary Research Institute
Strong, Rebecca
Animal & Plant Health Agency
La Rocca, S. Anna
Animal & Plant Health Agency
Locker, Nicolas
University of Surrey
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences
Steinbach, Falko
Animal & Plant Health Agency
Liu, Lihong
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Biomedical Science and Veterinary Public Health
Uttenthal, Åse
Technical University of Denmark (DTU)
Graham, Simon P.
Animal & Plant Health Agency

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