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Research article2018Peer reviewed

Placing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the risk assessment test battery of plant protection products (PPPs)

Mallmann, Gilvani Carla; Sousa, Jose Paulo; Sundh, Ingvar; Pieper, Silvia; Arena, Maria; da Cruz, Sonia Purin; Klauberg-Filho, Osmar


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are mutualistic symbionts considered a key group in soil systems involved in the provision of several ecosystem services. Recently they have been listed by EFSA as organisms to be included in the test battery for the risk assessment of plant protection product (PPPs). This study aimed to contribute to improve the ISO Protocol (ISO 10832: 2009) by assessing the feasibility of using other AMF species under different test conditions. Overall, results showed that AMF species Gigaspora albida and Rhizophagus clarus (selected out of five AMF species) are suitable to be used in spore germination tests using the ISO protocol (14 days incubation with sand or artificial soil as substrate) to test PPPs. However, several modifications to the protocol were made in order to accommodate the use of the tested isolates, namely the incubation temperature (28 degrees C instead of 24 degrees C) and the change of reference substance (boric acid instead of cadmium nitrate). The need for these changes, plus the results obtained with the three fungicides tested (chlorothalonil, mancozeb and metalaxyl-M) and comparisons made with literature on the relevance of the origin of AMF isolates in dictating the adequate test conditions, emphasize the importance of adjusting test conditions (AMF species/isolates and test temperature) when assessing effects for prospective risk assessment targeting different climatic zones. So, further studies should be conducted with different AMF species and isolates from different climatic regions, in order to better define which species/isolate and test conditions should be used to assess effects of a particular PPP targeting a given climatic zone.


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; Plant protection products; Spore germination test; Reference substance; Gigaspora albida; Rhizophagus clarus

Published in

2018, Volume: 27, number: 7, pages: 809-818
Publisher: SPRINGER

    Associated SLU-program

    SLU Plant Protection Network

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Agricultural Science

    Publication identifier


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