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Research article2018Peer reviewedOpen access

Over- and Underyielding in Time and Space in Experiments with Mixed Stands of Scots Pine and Norway Spruce

Drossler, Lars; Agestam, Eric; Bielak, Kamil; Dudzinska, Malgorzata; Koricheva, Julia; Liziniewicz, Mateusz; Lof, Magnus; Mason, Bill; Pretzsch, Hans; Valkonen, Sauli; Wellhausen, Klaas


Pine-spruce forests are one of the commonest mixed forest types in Europe and both tree species are very important for wood supply. This study summarized nine European studies with Scots pine and Norway spruce where a mixed-species stand and both monocultures were located in an experimental set-up. Overyielding (where growth of a mixed stand was greater than the average of both monocultures) was relatively common and often ranged between 0% and 30%, but could also be negative at individual study sites. Each individual site demonstrated consistent patterns of the mixing effect over different measurement periods. Transgressive overyielding (where the mixed-species stand was more productive than either of the monocultures) was found at three study sites, while a monoculture was more productive on the other sites. Large variation between study sites indicated that the existing experiments do not fully represent the extensive region where this mixed pine-spruce forest can occur. Pooled increment data displayed a negative influence of latitude and stand age on the mixing effect of those tree species in forests younger than 70 years.


biodiversity-productivity relationships; tree species mixture; stand growth; mixing effect; Pinus sylvestris L; Picea abies (L; ) Karst

Published in

2018, Volume: 9, number: 8, article number: 495
Publisher: MDPI