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Research article2018Peer reviewedOpen access

The adjuvant G3 promotes a Th1 polarizing innate immune response in equine PBMC

Hellman, Stina; Hjertner, Bernt; Morein, Bror; Fossum, Caroline


The immunomodulatory effect of a new particulate adjuvant, G3, alone or in combination with agonists to TLR2/1 or TLR5 was evaluated in cultures of equine PBMC. Exposure to the G3 adjuvant up-regulated genes encoding IFN-, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40 and IL-23p19 in the majority of the horses tested, indicating that the G3 adjuvant induced a pro-inflammatory and Th1 dominated profile. In accordance, genes encoding IL-13, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF- remained unaffected and genes encoding IFN-, IL-17A and TNF- were only occasionally and weakly induced. The two TLR agonists Pam3CSK4 (TLR2/1) and FliC (TLR5) induced cytokine profiles characterized by a clear induction of IL-10 as well as up-regulation of the genes encoding IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8. The presence of G3 modified this response, in particular by reducing the FliC and Pam3CSK4 induced production of IL-10. Furthermore, G3 acted in synergy with Pam3CSK4 in enhancing the production of IFN- whereas G3 combined with FliC increased the gene expression of IL-8. Thus, the G3 adjuvant seems to have the capacity to promote a Th1 polarizing innate immune response in eqPBMC, both by favouring IFN- production and by reducing production of IL-10 induced by co-delivered molecules. These features make G3 an interesting candidate to further evaluate for its potential as an adjuvant in equine vaccines.

Published in

Veterinary Research
2018, Volume: 49, article number: 108Publisher: BMC