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Review article - Peer-reviewed, 2019

A critical review on passive sampling in air and water for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)

Lai, Foon Yin; Rauert, Cassandra; Gobelius, Laura; Ahrens, Lutz


Passive sampling methods have been widely used for monitoring pollutants in different environments due to their advantages including simplicity to use and time-integrated sampling. Despite the advantages, challenges still exist and are associated with the calibration and implementation of passive sampling, in particular for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) due to their unique physico-chemical properties. In the current review, we focus on the calibration and use of passive samplers for PFASs in air and water. The comparison of the sampling rates generally showed a higher variability for the aqueous passive samplers compared to the passive air samplers. A better standardization for calibration methods for PFASs in air and water is needed. Nevertheless, passive samplers are an ideal tool for monitoring PFASs in air and water and can identify spatial or temporal trends and pollution sources, variations in water quality and ultimately improve our understanding of the global distribution of PFASs. (c) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Passive sampler; Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance; Calibration; Sampling rate; Application; Environmental monitoring; Spatial and temporal trends

Published in

Trends in Analytical Chemistry
2019, Volume: 121, article number: 115311