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Review article - Peer-reviewed, 2019

Breeding process and preparedness for mass-scale deployment of perennial ligno-cellulosic biomass crops switchgrass, miscanthus, willow and poplar

Clifton-Brown, John; Harfouche, Antoine; Casler, Michael D.; Jones, Huw Dylan; Macalpine, William J.; Murphy-Bokern, Donal; Smart, Lawrence B.; Adler, Anneli; Ashman, Chris; Awty-Carroll, Danny; Bastien, Catherine; Bopper, Sebastian; Botnari, Vasile; Brancourt-Hulmel, Maryse; Chen, Zhiyong; Clark, Lindsay V.; Cosentino, Salvatore; Dalton, Sue; Davey, Chris; Dolstra, Oene;
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Genetic improvement through breeding is one of the key approaches to increasing biomass supply. This paper documents the breeding progress to date for four perennial biomass crops (PBCs) that have high output-input energy ratios: namely Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), species of the genera Miscanthus (miscanthus), Salix (willow) and Populus (poplar). For each crop, we report on the size of germplasm collections, the efforts to date to phenotype and genotype, the diversity available for breeding and on the scale of breeding work as indicated by number of attempted crosses. We also report on the development of faster and more precise breeding using molecular breeding techniques. Poplar is the model tree for genetic studies and is furthest ahead in terms of biological knowledge and genetic resources. Linkage maps, transgenesis and genome editing methods are now being used in commercially focused poplar breeding. These are in development in switchgrass, miscanthus and willow generating large genetic and phenotypic data sets requiring concomitant efforts in informatics to create summaries that can be accessed and used by practical breeders. Cultivars of switchgrass and miscanthus can be seed-based synthetic populations, semihybrids or clones. Willow and poplar cultivars are commercially deployed as clones. At local and regional level, the most advanced cultivars in each crop are at technology readiness levels which could be scaled to planting rates of thousands of hectares per year in about 5 years with existing commercial developers. Investment in further development of better cultivars is subject to current market failure and the long breeding cycles. We conclude that sustained public investment in breeding plays a key role in delivering future mass-scale deployment of PBCs.


bioenergy; feedstocks; lignocellulose; M. sacchariflorus; M. sinensis; Miscanthus; Panicum virgatum; perennial biomass crop; Populus spp.; Salix spp.

Published in

Global Change Biology
2019, volume: 11, number: 1, pages: 118-151
Publisher: WILEY

Authors' information

Clifton-Brown, John
Aberystwyth University
Harfouche, Antoine
Tuscia University
Casler, Michael D.
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Jones, Huw Dylan
Aberystwyth University
Macalpine, William J.
Rothamsted Research
Murphy‐Bokern, Donal
No organisation
Smart, Lawrence B.
Cornell University
Adler, Anneli (Adler, Annelie)
SweTree Technologies
Adler, Anneli (Adler, Annelie)
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology
Ashman, Chris
Aberystwyth University
Awty-Carroll, Danny
Aberystwyth University
Bastien, Catherine
Bopper, Sebastian
University of Hohenheim
Botnari, Vasile
Moldavian Acad Sci
Brancourt-Hulmel, Maryse
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA)
Chen, Zhiyong
Hunan Agricultural University
Clark, Lindsay V.
University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
Cosentino, Salvatore
University of Catania
Dalton, Sue
Aberystwyth University
Davey, Chris
Aberystwyth University
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Sustainable Development Goals

SDG7 Affordable and clean energy

UKÄ Subject classification

Agricultural Science

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