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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2021

Functional traits driving species role in the structure of terrestrial vertebrate scavenger networks

Sebastian-Gonzalez, Esther; Morales-Reyes, Zebensui; Botella, Francisco; Naves-Alegre, Lara; Perez-Garcia, Juan M.; Mateo-Tomas, Patricia; Olea, Pedro P.; Moleon, Marcos; Magalhaes Barbosa, Jomar; Hiraldo, Fernando; Arrondo, Eneko; Donazar, Jose A.; Cortes-Avizanda, Ainara; Selva, Nuria; Lambertucci, Sergio A.; Bhattacharjee, Aishwarya; Brewer, Alexis L.; Abernethy, Erin F.; Turner, Kelsey L.; Beasley, James C.; deVault, Travis L.; Gerke, Hannah C.; Rhodes, Olin E., Jr.; Ordiz, Andres; Wikenros, Camilla; Zimmermann, Barbara; Wabakken, Petter; Wilmers, Christopher C.; Smith, Justine A.; Kendall, Corinne J.; Ogada, Darcy; Frehner, Ethan; Allen, Maximilian L.; Wittmer, Heiko U.; Butler, James R. A.; du Toit, Johan T.; Margalida, Antoni; Oliva-Vidal, Pilar; Wilson, David; Jerina, Klemen; Krofel, Miha; Kostecke, Rich; Inger, Richard; Per, Esra; Ayhan, Yunus; Sanci, Mehmet; Yilmazer, Unsal; Inagaki, Akino; Koike, Shinsuke; Samson, Arockianathan; Perrig, Paula L.; Spencer, Emma E.; Newsome, Thomas M.; Heurich, Marco; Anadon, Jose D.; Buechley, Evan R.; Gutierrez-Canovas, Cayetano; Elbroch, L. Mark; Sanchez-Zapata, Jose A.
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Species assemblages often have a non-random nested organization, which in vertebrate scavenger (carrion-consuming) assemblages is thought to be driven by facilitation in competitive environments. However, not all scavenger species play the same role in maintaining assemblage structure, as some species are obligate scavengers (i.e., vultures) and others are facultative, scavenging opportunistically. We used a database with 177 vertebrate scavenger species from 53 assemblages in 22 countries across five continents to identify which functional traits of scavenger species are key to maintaining the scavenging network structure. We used network analyses to relate ten traits hypothesized to affect assemblage structure with the "role" of each species in the scavenging assemblage in which it appeared. We characterized the role of a species in terms of both the proportion of monitored carcasses on which that species scavenged, or scavenging breadth (i.e., the species "normalized degree"), and the role of that species in the nested structure of the assemblage (i.e., the species "paired nested degree"), therefore identifying possible facilitative interactions among species. We found that species with high olfactory acuity, social foragers, and obligate scavengers had the widest scavenging breadth. We also found that social foragers had a large paired nested degree in scavenger assemblages, probably because their presence is easier to detect by other species to signal carcass occurrence. Our study highlights differences in the functional roles of scavenger species and can be used to identify key species for targeted conservation to maintain the ecological function of scavenger assemblages.


assemblage nestedness; carrion; facilitative interaction; normalized degree; obligate scavenger; olfactory acuity; social foraging; vulture

Published in

2021, volume: 102, number: 2, article number: e03519
Publisher: WILEY

Authors' information

Sebastian-Gonzalez, Esther
Universitat d'Alacant
Morales-Reyes, Zebensui
Universidad Miguel Hernandez de Elche
Botella, Francisco
Universidad Miguel Hernandez de Elche
Naves-Alegre, Lara
Universidad Miguel Hernandez de Elche
Perez-Garcia, Juan M.
Universitat de Lleida
Mateo-Tomas, Patricia
University of Oviedo
Olea, Pedro P.
Autonomous University of Madrid
Moleon, Marcos
University of Granada
Magalhaes Barbosa, Jomar
Universidad Miguel Hernandez de Elche
Hiraldo, Fernando
CSIC - Estacion Biologica de Donana (EBD)
Arrondo, Eneko
CSIC - Estacion Biologica de Donana (EBD)
Donazar, Jose A.
CSIC - Estacion Biologica de Donana (EBD)
Cortes-Avizanda, Ainara
University of Sevilla
Selva, Nuria
Polish Academy of Sciences
Lambertucci, Sergio A.
Universidad Nacional del Comahue
Bhattacharjee, Aishwarya
Brewer, Alexis L.
CUNY Queens Coll
Abernethy, Erin F.
Oregon State University
Turner, Kelsey L.
University System of Georgia
Beasley, James C.
University System of Georgia
deVault, Travis L.
University System of Georgia
Gerke, Hannah C.
University System of Georgia
Rhodes, Olin E.
University System of Georgia
Ordiz, Andres (Ordiz, Andres)
Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology
Zimmermann, Barbara
Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences
Wabakken, Petter
Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences
Wilmers, Christopher C.
University of California Santa Cruz
Smith, Justine A.
University of California Davis
Kendall, Corinne J.
North Carolina Zoo
Ogada, Darcy
Peregrine Fund
Frehner, Ethan
Utah System of Higher Education
Allen, Maximilian L.
University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
Wittmer, Heiko U.
Victoria University Wellington
Butler, James R. A.
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)
du Toit, Johan T.
Utah System of Higher Education
Margalida, Antoni
Universitat de Lleida
Oliva-Vidal, Pilar
Universitat de Lleida
Wilson, David
Biodivers Consultancy
Jerina, Klemen
University of Ljubljana
Krofel, Miha
University of Ljubljana
Kostecke, Rich
No organisation
Inger, Richard
University of Exeter
Per, Esra
Gazi University
Ayhan, Yunus
DEDE Nat Team
Sanci, Mehmet
DEDE Nat Team
Yilmazer, Unsal
DEDE Nat Team
Inagaki, Akino
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Koike, Shinsuke
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Samson, Arockianathan
Govt Arts Coll
Perrig, Paula L.
University of Wisconsin Madison
Spencer, Emma E.
University of Sydney
Newsome, Thomas M.
University of Sydney
Heurich, Marco
University of Freiburg
Anadon, Jose D.
University of Zaragoza
Buechley, Evan R.
Smithsonian National Zoological Park and Conservation Biology Institute
Gutierrez-Canovas, Cayetano
CSIC - Estacion Biologica de Donana (EBD)
Elbroch, L. Mark
Sanchez-Zapata, Jose A.
Universidad Miguel Hernandez de Elche
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