Immunothrombosis and vascular heterogeneity in cerebral cavernous malformationGlobisch, Maria A.; Onyeogaziri, Favour C.; Jauhiainen, Suvi; Yau, Anthony C. Y.; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Conze, Lei L.; Arce, Maximiliano; Corada, Monica; Smith, Ross O.; Rorsman, Charlotte; Sundell, Veronica; Fernando, Dinesh; Daniel, Geoffrey; Mattsson, Oscar; Savander, Henri; Wanders, Alkwin; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Laakso, Aki; Niemelae, Mika; Dejana, Elisabetta;
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Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a neurovascular disease that results in various neurological symptoms. Thrombi have been reported in surgically resected CCM patient biopsies; but the molecular signatures of these thrombi remain elusive. Here, we investigated the kinetics of thrombi formation in CCM and how thrombi affect the vasculature and contribute to cerebral hypoxia. We used RNA-sequencing to investigate mouse brain endothelial cells with specific Ccm3 gene deletion (Ccm3-iECKO). We found that Ccm3 deficient brain endothelial cells had a higher expression of genes related to the coagulation cascade and hypoxia when compared to wild-type brain endothelial cells. Immunofluorescent assays identified key molecular signatures of thrombi such as fibrin, von Willebrand factor, and activated platelets in Ccm3-iECKO mice and human CCM biopsies. Notably, we identified polyhedrocytes in Ccm3-iECKO mice and human CCM biopsies and report it for the first time. We also found that the parenchyma surrounding CCM lesions is hypoxic and that more thrombi correlate with higher levels of hypoxia. Lastly, we created an in vitro model to study CCM pathology and found that human brain endothelial cells deficient for CCM3, expressed elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and had a redistribution of von Willebrand factor. With transcriptomics, comprehensive imaging, and an in vitro CCM preclinical model this study provides experimental evidence that genes and proteins related to the coagulation cascade affect the brain vasculature and promote neurological side effects such as hypoxia in CCM. This study supports the concept that antithrombotic therapy may be beneficial for patients with CCM.
KeywordsFree Research Articles,; Thrombosis and Hemostasis; Vascular Biology
2022, volume: 140, number: 20, pages: 2154-2169
UKÄ Subject classification
Cell and Molecular Biology
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