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Research article2020Peer reviewed

Monitoring and discrimination of Pandemis moths in apple orchards using semiochemicals, wing pattern morphology and DNA barcoding

Herrera, Sebastian Larsson; Tha, Cristina; Vetukuri, Ramesh R.; Knight, Alan; Grenville-Briggs, Laura J.; Tasin, Marco


Non-phemmonal insect attractants of plant and microbial origin are often classified as kairomones. They differ from moth pheromones in that they can attract both sexes of several insect species. Kairomones are nowadays the object of several studies, due to their promising properties for monitoring and selective control of agricultural pests. Here we report on field trapping experiments carried out in apple orchards to quantify the response of the two leafroller species Pandemis heparana (Denis & Schiffermuller) and Pandemis cerasana (Hubner) to potential kairomones (acetic acid (AA), 2-phenyl ethanol (2-PET), pear ester (PE) and benzyl cyanide (BC)) in apple orchards. Specimens of the two species were sexed and classified to the species level using a morphological key based on wing traits. DNA barcoding was used to validate the discrimination between the two species through the morphological key. A two-component blend of AA and 2-PET was effective in catching significant numbers of females of P. heparana and P. cerasana. The addition of PE increased male but not female catches of only P. heparana. For P. heparana blends containing AA and BC with or without PE caught significantly fewer males and females than blends with PET and the AA/BC combination was as effective as PET releasing blends in trapping P. cerasana females. Morphological identification of Pandemis by wing pattern was in agreement with the DNA barcoding in the majority of cases. Additional studies are now required to establish an economic threshold to correlate moth catches with fruit damage and to the possibility that attract and kill based on the identified kairomones can be used to reduce damage.


Acetic acid; Integrated pest management; Pandemis cerasana; Pandemis heparana; Pear ester; 2-Phenylethanol

Published in

Crop Protection
2020, Volume: 132, article number: 105110