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Research article2021Peer reviewedOpen access

DeveLoP – A Rationale and Toolbox for Democratic Landscape Planning

Blennow, Kristina; Persson, Erik; Persson, Johannes


A rationale for an individuals-oriented landscape approach to sustainable land-use planning based on an analysis of bio-geo-physical components as well as the human components of the landscape is presented. A toolbox for analysing individuals’ decision-making and valuations in the landscape is described. The toolbox can provide evidence on the drivers of individuals’ decision-making in the landscape and the decision strategies they apply. This evidence can be used to identify communication needs and to design guidelines for effective communication. The tool for value elicitation separates the instrumental values (means) and end values (goals) of individuals with respect to locations in the landscape. This distinction, and knowledge of the end values in the landscape, are critical for the achievement of policy goals and for spatial planning from a democratic point of view. The individuals-oriented landscape approach has roots in geography and draws on behavioural decision research together with a model for integrating “science and proven experience” that is widely used in public decision-making in the Nordic countries. The approach differs from other scholarly disciplines addressing sustainable land-use planning. It is suitable for application on decision-making problems that include trade-offs between values. An overview of empirical studies is provided in which the individuals-oriented landscape rationale is applied to climate change.


landscape analysis; local knowledge; effective communication; decision analysis; instrumental value; end value; climate change; subjective attribution; tipping point thinking; blocked beliefs

Published in

2021, Volume: 13, number: 21, article number: 12055

    Sustainable Development Goals

    SDG11 Sustainable cities and communities
    SDG13 Climate action
    SDG16 Peace, justice and strong institutions

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Landscape Architecture

    Publication identifier


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