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Research article2022Peer reviewedOpen access

Indicator selection combining audio and visual perception of urban green spaces

Xiang, Yi; Hedblom, Marcus; Wang, Sen; Qiu, Ling; Gao, Tian


Recent studies revealed the importance of combined qualities of sound and the visual landscape for human wellbeing in urban green spaces (UGS). Yet, there is a lack of implementing urban design and management in urban green enviroments that promotes audio-visual qualities for human well-being. One potential reason for this is the rather scattered results of audio-visual indicators linking either to one single type of green or to studies providing indicators that have not been tested if they are generalizable to other cities. In this study, we use two existing general perception models; perceived affective qualities of soundscape (PAQs) and perceived sensory dimensions of landscape (PSDs) and investigate their combined potential as indicators of audio-visual perception of five different types of urban green spaces and their relationship with overall environmental satisfaction. Principal component analysis, pearson correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression exploring the relationships between PAQs and PSDs and overall environmental satisfaction showed that: (1) Semi-open green space and blue space had the most abundant perceived dimensions in both visual and auditory perceptions, followed by the enclosed green space and open green space, while gray space had the least. (2) Four satisfaction models based on audio-visual perception were found in the urban green spaces. Different design measures in different urban green spaces should be taken. (3) The principal components of PAQs and PSDs explained 48% of overall environmental satisfaction, suggesting the validation of them as auditory and visual prediction models. In conclusion, this study reveals that using a combination of PAQs and PSDs provides indicators that can be used to evaluate differences in audio-visual interactions between cities, to increase the possibilities to plan and design UGS for increasing human well-being.


Landscape; Soundscape; Perceived affective qualities (PAQs); Perceived sensory dimensions (PSDs); Satisfaction

Published in

Ecological Indicators
2022, Volume: 137, article number: 108772
Publisher: ELSEVIER

    Associated SLU-program

    Nature experiences and health

    Sustainable Development Goals

    SDG11 Sustainable cities and communities

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Environmental Sciences
    Landscape Architecture

    Publication identifier


    Permanent link to this page (URI)