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Research article2023Peer reviewedOpen access

Biological variation of biochemical urine and serum analytes in healthy dogs

Selin, Anna K.; Lilliehook, Inger; Forkman, Johannes; Larsson, Anders; Pelander, Lena; Strage, Emma M.


BackgroundBiological variation (BV) of urinary (U) biochemical analytes has not been described in absolute terms, let alone as a ratio of the U-creatinine or fractional excretion in healthy dogs. These analytes are potential diagnostic tools for different types of kidney damage and electrolyte disorders in dogs. ObjectivesWe aimed to investigate the BV of specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, urea, protein, glucose, chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate in urine from healthy pet dogs. MethodsBlood and urine samples from 13 dogs were collected once weekly for 8 weeks. Samples were analyzed in duplicate and in randomized order. For each sample, U-analyte and serum concentrations were measured, and U-analyte/U-creatinine and fractional excretion (FE) were calculated. Components of variance, estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, were used to determine within-subject variation (CVI), between-subject variation (CVG), and analytical variation (CVA). Index of individuality (II) and reference change values were calculated. ResultsCV(I) for all urine analytes varied between 12.6% and 35.9%, except for U-sodium, U-sodium/U-Cr, and FE-sodium, which had higher CV(I)s (59.5%-60.7%). For U-protein, U-sodium, U-potassium, U-sodium/U-creatinine, FE-urea, FE-glucose, FE-sodium, FE-potassium, and FE-phosphate II were low, indicating that population-based RIs were appropriate. The remaining analytes had an intermediate II, suggesting that population-based RIs should be used with caution. ConclusionThis study presents information on the biological variation of urinary and serum biochemical analytes from healthy dogs. These data are important for an appropriate interpretation of laboratory results.


biomarker; canine; osmolality; renal; urine specific gravity

Published in

Veterinary Clinical Pathology
2023, Volume: 52, number: 3, pages: 461-474
Publisher: WILEY