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Research article2023Peer reviewedOpen access

Long-term outcome in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease evaluated using the canine orthopaedic index

Engdahl, Karolina; Bergstrom, Annika; Hoglund, Odd; Moldal, Elena R.; Emanuelson, Ulf; Boge, Gudrun S.


BackgroundCranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD) is common in dogs, but studies on the long-term treatment outcome are scarce. MethodsThe long-term outcome in a cohort of 71 dogs with CCLD treated with tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO, n = 18), tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA, n = 23) or lateral fabellotibial suture (LFS, n = 30) was evaluated using the canine orthopaedic index. ResultsThe risk of stiffness and lameness was increased in dogs treated with TPLO (stiffness: incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.33, p = 0.015; lameness: IRR 1.34, p = 0.020) or TTA (stiffness: IRR 1.26, p = 0.035; lameness: IRR 1.31, p = 0.026) when compared to LFS at a median follow-up time of 4.6 years. LimitationsNo follow-up veterinary examination was performed. Data were collected from only two university animal hospitals, and thus, a referral bias towards more complicated cases is possible, which may limit the generalisability of the results. ConclusionClinicians can use the results to inform dog owners about the expected long-term outcome in dogs with CCLD.


canine; epidemiology; orthopaedics; outcome of surgery; risk factor; stifle

Published in

Veterinary Record
2023, Volume: 193, number: 12, article number: e3172
Publisher: WILEY