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Research article2023Peer reviewedOpen access

A battery-less implantable glucose sensor based on electrical impedance spectroscopy

Ollmar, Stig; Schrunder, Alejandro Fernandez; Birgersson, Ulrik; Kristoffersson, Tomas; Rusu, Ana; Thorsson, Elina; Hedenqvist, Patricia; Manell, Elin; Ryden, Anneli; Jensen-Waern, Marianne; Rodriguez, Saul


The ability to perform accurate continuous glucose monitoring without blood sampling has revolutionised the management of diabetes. Newer methods that can allow measurements during longer periods are necessary to substantially improve patients' quality of life. This paper presents an alternative method for glucose monitoring which is based on electrical impedance spectroscopy. A battery-less implantable bioimpedance spectroscope was designed, built, and used in an in vivo study on pigs. After a recovery period of 14 days post surgery, a total of 236 subcutaneous bioimpedance measurements obtained from intravenous glucose tolerance tests, with glucose concentration ranges between 77.4 and 523.8 mg/dL, were analyzed. The results show that glucose concentrations estimated by subcutaneous bioimpedance measurements correlate very well to the blood glucose reference values. The pigs were clinically healthy throughout the study, and the postmortem examinations revealed no signs of adverse effects related to the sensor. The implantation of the sensor requires minor surgery. The implant, being externally powered, could in principle last indefinitely. These encouraging results demonstrate the potential of the bioimpedance method to be used in future continuous glucose monitoring systems.

Published in

Scientific Reports
2023, Volume: 13, number: 1, article number: 18122