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Forskningsartikel - Refereegranskat, 2009

Dietary high protein and vitamin C mitigates endosulfan toxicity in the spotted murrel, Channa punctatus (Bloch, 1793)

Sarma, K.; Pal, A. K.; Sahu, N. P.; Ayyappan, S.; Baruah, K.


The amelioration effect of dietary high protein and vitamin C against stress was evaluated in spotted murrel, Channa punctatus, exposed to endosulfan. Two hundred and forty fish (average weight: 27.01 g/fish), distributed equally into 4 different groups (control, T-1, T-2, and T-3), each with 6 replicates were fed with control (40% crude protein, CP and 0.1% vitamin C), T-1 (40% CP and 0.1% vitamin C), T-2 (50% CP and 0.1% vitamin C), and T-3 (50% CP and 0.2% vitamin C) diets for 90 days. Groups fed T-1, T-2, and T-3 diets were exposed to sublethal endosulfan concentration, whereas the control was maintained without endosulfan exposure. Results indicated significant reduction in the growth performance, survival, and activities of lactate dehydrogenase (liver and muscle), malate dehydrogenase (liver and muscle), enzymes of protein metabolism (aspartate amino transferase in liver and alanine amino transferase in liver and muscle). acetyl choline esterase (brain), alkaline phosphatase activity (liver), and ATPase (gill) enzymes of group fed control diet and exposed to endosulfan. However, endosulfan exposed fish fed high CP and vitamin C diet exhibited significant (P < 0.05) improvement in their growth performance and metabolic enzyme activities. Further, high CP and vitamin C diet reduced endosulfan accumulation in the muscle. Overall results indicate that vitamin C (0.2%) supplementation in high CP (50%) diet improves growth, metabolism, and reduce endosulfan bioaccumulation in C punctatus. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Endosulfan; Crude protein; Vitamin C; Enzymes; Mitigation; Channa punctatus

Publicerad i

Science of the Total Environment
2009, Volym: 407, nummer: 12, sidor: 3668-3673

    UKÄ forskningsämne

    Fish and Aquacultural Science

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