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Research article2019Peer reviewedOpen access

1H NMR-Based Metabolomics and Lipid Analyses Revealed the Effect of Dietary Replacement of Microbial Extracts or Mussel Meal with Fish Meal to Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

Wagner, Liane; Gomez-Requeni, Pedro; Moazzami, Ali A.; Lundh, Torbjorn; Vidakovic, Aleksandar; Langeland, Markus; Kiessling, Anders; Pickova, Jana


The effects of replacing 40% of dietary fish meal (FM) in a reference diet (REF) with either mussel meal (MM), zygomycete fungi (ZYG), extracted baker's yeast (EY), or non-extracted baker's yeast (NY) on the lipid and metabolic profile of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) were investigated. After a 14-week feeding trial, liver and muscle tissues were collected for lipid (lipid content, lipid class, fatty acid composition) and H-1 NMR-based metabolomics analyses (aqueous and chloroform phases). Lipid analyses showed that fish fed ZYG diet had lower liver lipid content and thereby 10% higher level of docosahexaenoic acid compared with REF. Metabolomics analyses showed that on the one hand fish fed NY diet affected liver metabolites (2-3 fold higher concentrations of e.g., n,n-dimethylglycine and betaine) compared with REF, while, on the other hand, the muscle metabolic fingerprint was mainly a ffected by EY. In general, a ffected metabolites (e.g., alanine, anserine, betaine, hydroxyproline, isoleucine, malonate, n,n-dimethylglycine, proline, succinate, and valine) in fish fed test diets suggested that the test meal ingredients caused mainly a response in muscle metabolism. Fish metabolism was least affected by MM, which suggests that it may be suitable to replace fish meal in Arctic charr diets.


replacement; baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae); zygomycete fungi (Rhizopus oryzae); fatty acids; DHA; fish

Published in

2019, Volume: 4, number: 3, article number: 46