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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2021

Fundamental study on changes in the FODMAP profile of cereals, pseudo-cereals, and pulses during the malting process

Ispiryan, Lilit; Kuktaite, Ramune; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K.


Whole grains and pulses are rich in nutrients but often avoided by individuals with gastrointestinal disorders, due to high levels of fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs). This study investigated the impact of malting as delivery-system for endogenous enzymes. Malts from barley and wheat (naturally high in fructans), lentils and chickpeas (high in galactooligosaccharides), oat and buckwheat (low in FODMAPs) were produced. While barley and wheat malts had slightly elevated fructan-levels, in oat malt 0.8 g/100 g DM fructans were de novo synthesized. In lentils and chickpeas galactooligosaccharides diminished by 80-90 %. Buckwheat did not contain any FODMAPs commonly investigated, but fagopyritols which may have a similar physiological effect. Also fagopyritols were degraded. While malted pulses and buckwheat are directly suitable for low FODMAP applications, using the combined approach of malting and fermentation, malted cereals could contribute to high nutritional values of such products.


FODMAPs; Fagopyritols; Malting; Germination; Fructans; Galactooligosaccharides (GOS)

Published in

Food Chemistry
2021, volume: 343, article number: 128549

Authors' information

Ispiryan, Lilit
University College Cork
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Breeding
Zannini, Emanuele
University College Cork
Arendt, Elke K.
University College Cork

UKÄ Subject classification

Food Science

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