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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2021

Effects of High Intakes of Fructose and Galactose, with or without Added Fructooligosaccharides, on Metabolic Factors, Inflammation, and Gut Integrity in a Rat Model

Mhd Omar, Nor Adila; Frank, Jan; Kruger, Johanita; Dal Bello, Federica; Medana, Claudio; Collino, Massimo; Zamaratskaia, Galia; Michaelsson, Karl; Wolk, Alicja; Landberg, Rikard


Scope A high fructose and galactose intake show adverse metabolic effects in animal models and in humans, but it is yet unknown if addition of fermentable dietary fiber can mitigate such effects. This study investigate the effects of high intakes of fructose and galactose, with/without added fructooligosaccharides (FOS), on metabolic factors, inflammation, and gut integrity markers in rats.Methods and Results Rats (n = 6/group) receive different carbohydrates at isocaloric conditions for 12 weeks as follows: 1) starch (control), 2) fructose, 3) galactose, 4) starch + FOS (FOS control), 5) fructose + FOS, and 6) galactose + FOS, together with a high amount of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) in all diets except for in 7) starch + olive oil (negative control). The rats fed the galactose and galactose + FOS diets exhibit lower body weight than other groups. High-galactose diets has more pronounced effects on metabolic factors and gut permeability than high-fructose diets. High-fructose diets show less pronounced effect on these selected markers. No differences in inflammatory markers are detected for any of the diets.Conclusions The results suggest potential adverse effects of high galactose and fructose on metabolic factors and gut integrity markers, but not on inflammation. However, several mechanisms are at play, and general net effects are difficult to determine conclusively for the conditions tested.


fructooligosaccharides; fructose; galactose; gut integrity; inflammatory markers

Published in

Molecular Nutrition and Food Research
2021, volume: 65, number: 6, article number: 2001133
Publisher: WILEY

Authors' information

Mhd Omar, Nor Adila
Chalmers University of Technology
Frank, Jan
University of Hohenheim
Kruger, Johanita
University of Hohenheim
Dal Bello, Federica
University of Turin
Medana, Claudio
University of Turin
Collino, Massimo
University of Turin
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Molecular Sciences
Michaelsson, Karl
Uppsala University
Wolk, Alicja
Uppsala University
Landberg, Rikard
Umea University

UKÄ Subject classification

Nutrition and Dietetics

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