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Research article2021Peer reviewedOpen access

Preparation and application of efficient biobased carbon adsorbents prepared from spruce bark residues for efficient removal of reactive dyes and colors from synthetic effluents

Simoes Dos Reis, Glaydson; Larsson, Sylvia; Thyrel, Mikael; Tung, Ngoc Pham; Lima, Eder Claudio; Pequeno de Oliveira, Helinando; Dotto, Guilherme L.


Biobased carbon materials (BBC) obtained from Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) bark was produced by single-step chemical activation with ZnCl2 or KOH, and pyrolysis at 800 °C for one hour. The chemical activation reagent had a significant impact on the properties of the BBCs. KOH-biobased carbon material (KOH-BBC) had a higher specific surface area (SBET), equal to 1067 m2 g−1, larger pore volume (0.558 cm3 g−1), more mesopores, and a more hydrophilic surface than ZnCl2-BBC. However, the carbon yield for KOH-BBC was 63% lower than for ZnCl2-BBC. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of the two BBCs to remove two dyes, reactive orange 16 (RO-16) and reactive blue 4 (RB-4), and treat synthetic effluents. The general order model was most suitable for modeling the adsorption kinetics of both dyes and BBCs. The equilibrium parameters at 22 °C were calculated using the Liu model. Upon adsorption of RO-16, Qmax was 90.1 mg g−1 for ZnCl2-BBC and 354.8 mg g−1 for KOH-BBC. With RB-4, Qmax was 332.9 mg g−1 for ZnCl2-BBC and 582.5 mg g−1 for KOH-BBC. Based on characterization and experimental data, it was suggested that electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds between BBCs and RO-16 and RB-4 dyes played the most crucial role in the adsorption process. The biobased carbon materials showed high efficiency for removing RO-16 and RB-4, comparable to the best examples from the literature. Additionally, both the KOH- and ZnCl2-BBC showed a high ability to purify two synthetic effluents, but the KOH-BBC was superior.


biobased carbon materials; meso- and microporous carbons; dye adsorption; chemical adsorption; electrostatic interactions

Published in

2021, Volume: 11, number: 7, article number: 772