Preparation and application of efficient biobased carbon adsorbents prepared from spruce bark residues for efficient removal of reactive dyes and colors from synthetic effluentsSimoes Dos Reis, Glaydson; Larsson, Sylvia; Thyrel, Mikael; Tung, Ngoc Pham; Lima, Eder Claudio; Pequeno de Oliveira, Helinando; Dotto, Guilherme L.;
Biobased carbon materials (BBC) obtained from Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) bark was produced by single-step chemical activation with ZnCl2 or KOH, and pyrolysis at 800 °C for one hour. The chemical activation reagent had a significant impact on the properties of the BBCs. KOH-biobased carbon material (KOH-BBC) had a higher specific surface area (SBET), equal to 1067 m2 g−1, larger pore volume (0.558 cm3 g−1), more mesopores, and a more hydrophilic surface than ZnCl2-BBC. However, the carbon yield for KOH-BBC was 63% lower than for ZnCl2-BBC. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of the two BBCs to remove two dyes, reactive orange 16 (RO-16) and reactive blue 4 (RB-4), and treat synthetic effluents. The general order model was most suitable for modeling the adsorption kinetics of both dyes and BBCs. The equilibrium parameters at 22 °C were calculated using the Liu model. Upon adsorption of RO-16, Qmax was 90.1 mg g−1 for ZnCl2-BBC and 354.8 mg g−1 for KOH-BBC. With RB-4, Qmax was 332.9 mg g−1 for ZnCl2-BBC and 582.5 mg g−1 for KOH-BBC. Based on characterization and experimental data, it was suggested that electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds between BBCs and RO-16 and RB-4 dyes played the most crucial role in the adsorption process. The biobased carbon materials showed high efficiency for removing RO-16 and RB-4, comparable to the best examples from the literature. Additionally, both the KOH- and ZnCl2-BBC showed a high ability to purify two synthetic effluents, but the KOH-BBC was superior.
biobased carbon materials; meso- and microporous carbons; dye adsorption; chemical adsorption; electrostatic interactions
Published inCoatings 2021, volume: 11, number: 7, article number: 772
UKÄ Subject classification
Other Environmental Engineering
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
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