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Research article2022Peer reviewedOpen access

Comparative compositions of metabolites and dietary fibre components in doughs and breads produced from bread wheat, emmer and spelt and using yeast and sourdough processes

Shewry, Peter R.; America, Antoine H. P.; Lovegrove, Alison; Wood, Abigail J.; Plummer, Amy; Evans, Jessica; van den Broeck, Hetty C.; Gilissen, Luud; Mumm, Roland; Ward, Jane L.; Proos, Zsuzsan; Kuiper, Petra; Longin, C. Friedrich H.; Andersson, Annica A. M.; van Straaten, Jan Philip; Jonkers, Daisy; Brouns, Fred


Wholemeal flours from blends of bread wheat, emmer and spelt were processed into bread using yeast-based and sourdough fermentation. The bread wheat flour contained significantly higher concentrations of total dietary fibre and fructans than the spelt and emmer flours, the latter having the lowest contents. Breadmaking using sourdough and yeast systems resulted in changes in composition from flour to dough to bread including increases in organic acids and mannitol in the sourdough system and increases in amino acids and sugars (released by hydrolysis of proteins and starch, respectively) in both processing systems. The concentrations of fructans and raffinose (the major endogenous FODMAPs) were reduced by yeast and sourdough fermentation, with yeast having the greater effect. Both systems resulted in greater increases in sugars and glycerol in emmer than in bread wheat and spelt, but the significance of these differences for human health has not been established.


Wheat; Sourdough; Breadmaking; Ancient wheats; Dietary fibre

Published in

Food Chemistry
2022, Volume: 374, article number: 131710

    Sustainable Development Goals

    SDG2 End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Food Science

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