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Forskningsartikel2022Vetenskapligt granskadÖppen tillgång

Greenhouse production contributes to pesticide occurrences in Swedish streams

Boye, Kristin; Bostrom, Gustaf; Jonsson, Ove; Gonczi, Mikaela; Lofkvist, Klara; Kreuger, Jenny


Greenhouse and other covered cultivation systems have increased globally over the past several decades, leading to considerably improved product quality and productivity per land area unit. However, there is a paucity in information regarding the environmental impacts of covered production systems, especially regarding pesticides entering the surrounding environment. Aiming to address this knowledge gap, we collected grab samples downstream of greenhouses from seven Swedish streams every 14 days during a 12 month period. In three of the streams, samples were also taken upstream of the greenhouses and in four of the streams time-integrated samples were collected by TIMFIE samplers in the period between grab sampling occasions. The samples were analyzed for 28 substances (27 that were permitted for use in greenhouse production systems in Sweden and one degradation product to a permitted substance). Pesticide use journals were collected from the greenhouse producers for the 12 month period. The results were examined for indications of greenhouse contributions to detection frequencies, maximum and average concentrations, and potential ecotoxicicity in several ways: (1) comparing locations downstream of greenhouses with registered use of a substance with those without registered use, (2) comparing results from this study with those from the Swedish environmental monitoring program of pesticides in surface water from catchments with no greenhouses from the same period and region, (3) comparing concentration trends with registered pesticide application times in the greenhouses, and (4) comparing up-and downstream concentrations. The results strongly suggest that greenhouse applications do contribute to pesticide occurrences, maximum and median concentrations for most of the pesticides included in this study, and to potential toxicity to aquatic organisms for several of them, most notably imidacloprid, acetamiprid, carbendazim, and pirimicarb.


Covered production systems; Surface water; Plant protection products; Ecological toxicity; Environmental monitoring; TIMFIE

Publicerad i

Science of the Total Environment
2022, Volym: 809, artikelnummer: 152215
Utgivare: ELSEVIER