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Forskningsartikel2021Vetenskapligt granskadÖppen tillgång

Standing behavior and sole horn lesions: A prospective observational longitudinal study

Eriksson, Hanna K.; Daros, Ruan R.; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.; Weary, Daniel M.


Studies performed on individual research farms have reported that dairy cattle developing sole hemorrhages or sole ulcers in peak to mid lactation spent more time standing during the weeks around calving. The aim of this prospective observational longitudinal study was to evaluate whether this relationship is evident in commercial dairy herds. A convenience sample of 8 herds were visited every other week, and animals without previous severe horn lesions and deemed sound at 4 to 8 wk before calving were enrolled. Standing behavior was measured with data loggers attached to a rear leg, and standing time and duration of the longest standing bout were determined for each cow. Standing behavior was summarized into 3 periods: before (d -14 to -2), around (d -1 to 1), and after (d 2 to 14) calving. Average daily standing time and average daily longest standing bout were determined for each cow and period. Average daily standing time was normally distributed, with a mean +/- standard deviation of 12.1 +/- 1.6, 14.4 +/- 2.2, and 13.8 +/- 1.7 h/d for the 3 periods, respectively. Average daily longest standing bout was right skewed with a median of 3.6 h/d [interquartile range (IQR): 3.0 to 4.3; range: 1.7 to 12.1], 3.9 h/d (IQR: 3.1 to 4.8; range: 1.3 to 11.5), and 3.7 (IQR: 3.2 to 4.4; range: 1.5 to 11.7) h/d before, around, and after calving, respectively. Hoof trimming was performed 8 to 12 wk postpartum; hoof lesion data were summarized per cow, and the most serious injury of each type of lesion was noted. Sole hemorrhages or sole ulcers were found in 25 of 256 cows. Mixed-effect logistic regression models with herd as random effect were used to analyze the risk of developing sole hemorrhages and soleulcers, using animals without hoof lesions as reference category. Separate models were fitted for the 2 standing behaviors, and for the periods before, around, and after calving. Change in standing behavior from before to after calving was also analyzed. Body condition score at calving, body condition score loss in early lactation, milk yield, parity, and days in milk at trimming were included as covariates. In this study, no evidence for an association was found between sole hemorrhages and sole ulcers and standing behavior before or around calving. Longer standing time and longer standing bouts after calving were associated with increased odds of developing sole hemorrhages and sole ulcers, as was an increase in standing bout duration from before to after calving. Animals with sole horn or white line lesions had higher unconditional sample odds of becoming lame (odds ratio = 2.5) and severely lame (odds ratio = 11.7) after calving, compared with animals with no registered lesions at trimming. Multiparous animals had higher lameness incidence, both before and after calving. Avoiding practices that exacerbate increases in standing time and standing bout duration in early lactation may reduce the incidence of sole hemorrhages and sole ulcers.


hoof pathology; longitudinal study; standing bout

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Journal of Dairy Science
2021, Volym: 104, nummer: 10, sidor: 11018-11034

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