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Forskningsartikel2022Vetenskapligt granskadÖppen tillgång

Invasion of Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis and Ash Dieback Pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus in Ukraine-A Concerted Action

Davydenko, Kateryna; Skrylnyk, Yuriy; Borysenko, Oleksandr; Menkis, Audrius; Vysotska, Natalia; Meshkova, Valentyna; Olson, Ake; Elfstrand, Malin; Vasaitis, Rimvys


Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a beetle that originates from East Asia. Upon invasion to North America in the early 2000s, it killed untold millions of ash trees. In European Russia, EAB was first detected in Moscow in 2003 and proved to have the potential to also kill native European ash (Fraxinus excelsior). The beetle has since spread in all geographic directions, establishing itself in eastern Ukraine by 2019 and possessing potential for further westward spread towards the EU. Apart from the approaching EAB, F. excelsior is currently threatened by the dieback disease (ADB) caused by the invasive ascomycete fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. The infestation by EAB combined with ADB infection is expected to be more lethal than either of them alone, yet the potential consequences are unknown. To date, eastern Ukraine represents the geographic area in which both invasions overlap, thus providing the opportunity for related investigations. The aims of the study were to investigate: (i) the EAB expansion range in Ukraine, (ii) the relative susceptibility of F. excelsior and American ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) to EAB and ADB, and (iii) the combined effect/impact on ash condition imposed by both the pest and disease in the area subjected to the invasion. The results have demonstrated that (i) the invasion of EAB is currently expanding both in terms of newly infested trees and invaded geographic area; (ii) F. excelsior is more resistant to EAB than F. pennsylvanica, while F. excelsior is more susceptible to ADB than F. pennsylvanica; and (iii) the infection by ADB is likely to predispose F. excelsior to the infestation by EAB. It was concluded that inventory and mapping of surviving F. excelsior, affected by both ADB and EAB, is necessary to acquire genetic resources for the work on strategic, long-term restoration of F. excelsior in devastated areas, thereby tackling a possible invasion of EAB to the EU.


emerald ash borer; ash dieback; Fraxinus spp; forest pests; invasive populations; eastern Ukraine

Publicerad i

2022, Volym: 13, nummer: 5, artikelnummer: 789
Utgivare: MDPI