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Research article2022Peer reviewedOpen access

Multivariate analyses of Ethiopian durum wheat revealed stable and high yielding genotypes

Mulugeta, Behailu; Tesfaye, Kassahun; Dida, Mulatu Geleta; Johansson, Eva; Hailesilassie, Teklehaimanot; Hammenhag, Cecilia; Hailu, Faris; Ortiz Rios, Rodomiro Octavio


Improving crop adaptation and stability across diverse and changing environmental conditions is essential to increasing grain yield per unit area. In turn, this contributes to meeting the increasing global food demand. Nevertheless, a number of factors challenge the efficiency of crop improvement programs, of which genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI) is one of the major factors. This study aimed to evaluate the performance and phenotypic stability of 385 Ethiopian durum wheat landraces and 35 cultivars; assess the pattern of genotype by environment interaction (GEI) effect, and identify stable and high-yielding landraces or cultivars using the additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) and genotype main effect plus genotype by environment interaction biplot (GGE-biplot). The experiment was laid out in an alpha lattice design with two replications at five test sites (Akaki, Chefe Donsa, Holeta, Kulumsa, and Sinana). The combined analysis of variance revealed highly significant effects (P ≤ 0.01) of environments (E), genotype (G), and GEI on a phenotypic variation of traits evaluated, including grain yield. For all traits, the amount of phenotypic variance and GEI explained by the GGE biplot was higher than in AMMI2, but both exhibited significant effects of E and GEI on the genotypes. The AMMI model identified G169, G420, G413, G139, G415, G416, G417, and G418 as stable genotypes across testing sites. Whereas, the GGE biplot identified G169, G420, G415, G139, G106, G412, G413, and G417 as both high-yielding and stable across test sites. Hence, genotypes identified as stable and high yielding in the present study could be used in a durum wheat breeding program aimed at identifying genes and molecular markers associated with the crop’s productivity traits as well as developing stable and high-yielding cultivars for use in East Africa and beyond.


Wheat; Plant breeding; Phenotypes; Genome-wide association studies; Cereal crops; Clay mineralogy; Field trials; Gene pool

Published in

2022, Volume: 17, number: 8, article number: e0273008