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Research article2022Peer reviewedOpen access

Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Reveal Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Bolivian Wild and Cultivated Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

Villanueva-Gutierrez, Evelyn E.; Johansson, Eva; Prieto-Linde, Maria Luisa; Centellas Quezada, Alberto; Olsson, Marie E.; Geleta, Mulatu


The western part of South America is a centre of diversity for tomatoes, but genetic diversity studies are lacking for parts of that region, including Bolivia. We used 11 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers (including seven novel markers) to evaluate genetic diversity and population structure of 28 accessions (four modern cultivars, four advanced lines, nine landraces, 11 wild populations), and to compare their genetic variation against phenotypic traits, geographical origin and altitude. In total, 33 alleles were detected across all loci, with 2-5 alleles per locus. The top three informative SSRs were SLM6-11, LE20592 and TomSatX11-1, with polymorphism information content (PIC) of 0.65, 0.55 and 0.49, respectively. The genetic diversity of Bolivian tomatoes was low, as shown by mean expected heterozygosity (He) of 0.07. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 77.3% of the total variation was due to variation between accessions. Significant genetic differentiation was found for geographical origin, cultivation status, fruit shape, fruit size and growth type, each explaining 16-23% of the total variation. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) tree and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) scatter plot both revealed differentiation between accessions with determinate flowers and accessions with indeterminate flowers, regardless of cultivation status. The genetic profiles of the accessions suggest that the Bolivian tomato gene pool comprises both strictly self-pollinating and open-pollinating genotypes.


core germplasm; AMOVA; UPGMA; landraces; advanced lines; modern cultivars

Published in

2022, Volume: 13, number: 9, article number: 1505
Publisher: MDPI