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Review article - Peer-reviewed, 2022

Protein-Based Biostimulants to Enhance Plant Growth-State-of-the-Art and Future Direction with Sugar Beet as an Example

Jolayemi, Okanlawon L. L.; Malik, Ali H. H.; Ekblad, Tobias; Fredlund, Kenneth; Olsson, Marie E. E.; Johansson, Eva


Protein-based biostimulants (PBBs) are derived from the hydrolysis of protein-rich raw materials of plant and/or animal origins, usually by-products or wastes from agro-industries. The active ingredients (AIs) produced by hydrolysis have the capacity to influence physiological and metabolic processes in plants, leading to enhanced growth, nutrient and water-use efficiency, tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, and improved crop yield and quality. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and future opportunities for use of PBBs, based on potential effects on the soil, crops, and sustainability (social, economic, environmental). In this case, two examples of PBBs (hydrolyzed wheat gluten and potato protein) and their effects on the early growth of three sugar beet varieties are described and discussed. Both PBBs have a significant stimulating effect on early sugar beet growth and development. The opportunity to develop PBBs into superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) is discussed. To conclude, PBBs/SAPs developed from agro-industrial wastes have the potential for sustainably supplying water and nutrients in agricultural systems and for enhancing plant growth and development over a substantial period.


biostimulant; hydrolyzed wheat gluten; potato protein; sugar beet; sustainable development; agro-industrial wastes; superabsorbent polymers

Published in

2022, volume: 12, number: 12, article number: 3211
Publisher: MDPI

Authors' information

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Breeding
Malik, Ali H.
Nelson Seed Dev AB
Ekblad, Tobias
MariboHilleshög Research
Fredlund, Kenneth M.
MariboHilleshög Research
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Breeding
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Breeding

UKÄ Subject classification

Other Agricultural Sciences not elsewhere specified
Environmental Management

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