Skip to main content
SLU publication database (SLUpub)

Research article2022Peer reviewedOpen access

Analytical and clinical characterization of an optimized dual monoclonal sandwich ELISA for the quantification of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) protein in human blood samples

Jagarlamudi, K. K.; Swinkels, L.; Zupan, M.; Osredkar, J.; Venge, P.; Eriksson, S.


Thymidine Kinase 1 (TK1) plays an important role in DNA precursor synthesis and serum TK1 activity has been used as a biomarker for prognosis and therapy monitoring of different malignancies. AroCell has developed a dual monoclonal antibody ELISA for determination of TK1 protein in clinical samples. The purpose of the study is to validate the ELISA analytically in relation to the gold standard, [H-3]-deoxythymidine (dThd) phosphorylation assay for TK1 activity using sera from patients with different malignancies. The colorimetric TK 210 ELISA was validated analytically by assessment of precision, linearity, interfering substances, and stability. For the clinical validation, serum samples from patients with hematological malignancies (n = 100), breast cancer (n = 56), prostate cancer (n = 70) and blood donors (n = 159) were analyzed using TK 210 ELISA and TK1 activity by [H-3]-deoxythymidine (dThd) phosphorylation assay. The sandwich TK 210 ELISA was highly specific for TK1 protein having a detection limit of 0.12 ng/mL, with a functional sensitivity of 0.25 ng/mL. Within-run CVs ranged from 5.5% to 10% and between-run CVs ranged from 5% to 15%. The ratio of observed to expected dilutional parallelism of 5 serum samples was in the range of 80-120%. Samples exhibited stability through four freeze/thaw cycles and 5 days at 4 degrees C. Further, the ROC curve analysis showed that TK 210 ELISA and [H-3]-dThd phosphorylation assay had similar sensitivity (62% vs 59%) in hematological malignancies. However, in the case of breast and prostate cancer sera, TK 210 ELISA had higher sensitivity (59% and 44%) compared to [H-3]-dThd phosphorylation assay (47% and 25%) at a specificity of 98%. These data demonstrate that the dual monoclonal antibody based AroCell TK 210 ELISA is a robust, accurate and precise tool for measuring TK1 protein in different malignancies that can improve the clinical applications of TK1 as a biomarker in cancer management.

Published in

2022, Volume: 17, number: 10, article number: e0275444

    Sustainable Development Goals

    SDG3 Good health and well-being

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Clinical Laboratory Medicine

    Publication identifier


    Permanent link to this page (URI)