Skip to main content
SLU:s publikationsdatabas (SLUpub)

Forskningsartikel2023Vetenskapligt granskadÖppen tillgång

Detection of Influenza D-Specific Antibodies in Bulk Tank Milk from Swedish Dairy Farms

Alvarez, Ignacio; Hagglund, Sara; Naslund, Katarina; Eriksson, Axel; Ahlgren, Evelina; Ohlson, Anna; Ducatez, Mariette F.; Meyer, Gilles; Valarcher, Jean-Francois; Zohari, Siamak


Influenza D virus (IDV) has been detected in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) outbreaks, and experimental studies demonstrated this virus's capacity to cause lesions in the respiratory tract. In addition, IDV-specific antibodies were detected in human sera, which indicated that this virus plays a potential zoonotic role. The present study aimed to extend our knowledge about the epidemiologic situation of IDV in Swedish dairy farms, using bulk tank milk (BTM) samples for the detection of IDV antibodies. A total of 461 and 338 BTM samples collected during 2019 and 2020, respectively, were analyzed with an in-house indirect ELISA. In total, 147 (32%) and 135 (40%) samples were IDV-antibody-positive in 2019 and 2020, respectively. Overall, 2/125 (2%), 11/157 (7%) and 269/517 (52%) of the samples were IDV-antibody-positive in the northern, middle and southern regions of Sweden. The highest proportion of positive samples was repeatedly detected in the south, in the county of Halland, which is one of the counties with the highest cattle density in the country. In order to understand the epidemiology of IDV, further research in different cattle populations and in humans is required.


Influenza D; cattle; serology; bovine respiratory disease; ELISA; bulk tank milk

Publicerad i

2023, Volym: 15, nummer: 4, artikelnummer: 829
Utgivare: MDPI