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Forskningsartikel2023Vetenskapligt granskadÖppen tillgång

Antimicrobial Use by Peri-Urban Poultry Smallholders of Kajiado and Machakos Counties in Kenya

Mutua, Florence; Kiarie, Gideon; Mbatha, Miriam; Onono, Joshua; Boqvist, Sofia; Kilonzi, Emily; Mugisha, Lawrence; Moodley, Arshnee; Sternberg-Lewerin, Susanna


Antimicrobial use (AMU) is a major driver of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). An understanding of current practices can lead to better targeting of AMU-reducing interventions. An analysis of the distribution and current usage of veterinary drugs in peri-urban smallholder poultry systems in Kenya was undertaken. A survey among poultry farmers and key informant interviews with agrovet operators and other players in the value chain was conducted in Machakos and Kajiado counties. Interview data were analyzed using descriptive and thematic approaches. A total of 100 farmers were interviewed. The majority (58%) were > 50 years old, and all kept chickens, while 66% kept other livestock. Antibiotics constituted 43% of the drugs reportedly used on the farms (n = 706). These were mostly administered by the farmers themselves (86%) through water (98%). Leftover drugs were stored for later use (89%) or disposed of (11%). Incineration was the main method for the disposal of leftover drugs and empty containers. As described by the key informants (n = 17), the drug distribution chain relied on agrovet shops that were supplied by local distributors and pharmaceutical companies, which, in turn, supplied drugs to the farmers. Farmers reportedly purchased drugs without prescriptions and rarely observed the withdrawal periods. Drug quality was a concern, especially for products requiring reconstitution.


antimicrobial resistance; veterinary drug; animal health; food security; value chain

Publicerad i

2023, Volym: 12, nummer: 5, artikelnummer: 905Utgivare: MDPI