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Forskningsartikel2022Vetenskapligt granskadÖppen tillgång

Ancient variation of the AvrPm17 gene in powdery mildew limits the effectiveness of the introgressed rye Pm17 resistance gene in wheat

Mueller, Marion C.; Kunz, Lukas; Schudel, Seraina; Lawson, Aaron W.; Kammerecker, Sandrine; Isaksson, Jonatan; Wyler, Michele; Graf, Johannes; Sotiropoulos, Alexandros G.; Praz, Coraline R.; Manser, Beatrice; Wicker, Thomas; Bourras, Salim; Keller, Beat


Introgressions of chromosomal segments from related species into wheat are important sources of resistance against fungal diseases. The durability and effectiveness of introgressed resistance genes upon agricultural deployment is highly variable-a phenomenon that remains poorly understood, as the corresponding fungal avirulence genes are largely unknown. Until its breakdown, the Pm17resistance gene introgressed from rye to wheat provided broad resistance against powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis). Here, we used quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to identify the corresponding wheat mildew avirulence effector AvrPm17. It is encoded by two paralogous genes that exhibit signatures of reoccurring gene conversion events and are members of a mildew sublineage specific effector cluster. Extensive haplovariant mining in wheat mildew and related sublineages identified several ancient virulent AvrPm17 variants that were present as standing genetic variation in wheat powdery mildew prior to the Pm17 introgression, thereby paving the way for the rapid breakdown of the Pml7resistance. QTL mapping in mildew identified a second genetic component likely corresponding to an additional resistance gene present on the 1AL.1RS translocation carrying Pm17. This gene remained previously undetected due to suppressed recombination within the introgressed rye chromosomal segment. We conclude that the initial effectiveness of 1AL.1RS was based on simultaneous introgression of two genetically linked resistance genes. Our results demonstrate the relevance of pathogen-based genetic approaches to disentangling complex resistance loci in wheat. We propose that identification and monitoring of avirulence gene diversity in pathogen populations become an integral part of introgression breeding to ensure effective and durable resistance in wheat.


wheat; powdery mildew; resistance introgression; gene conversion; avirulence gene

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
2022, Volym: 119, nummer: 30, artikelnummer: e2108808119

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