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Forskningsartikel2024Vetenskapligt granskadÖppen tillgång

Geospatial quality assessment of locally available ice for heavy metals and metalloids and their potential risks for human health in Karachi, Pakistan

Alamgir, Aamir; Ali, Qamar; Fatima, Noor; Khan, Moazzam Ali; Nawaz, Muhammad Farrakh; Tariq, Somia; Rizwan, Muhammad; Yong, Jean Wan Hong


Extreme hot conditions during summers, high poverty rate and continuous electricity load shedding affect commercial manufacturing and sale of ice in many countries. The vendors prepared ice using untreated piped water, tanker water and ground water. These waters may contain hazardous pollutants and ice made from them will pose a potential human health risk. Thus, it is important to regularly monitor the chemical composition of water sources and the quality of the manufactured ice. A contemporary examination was carried out to evaluate the physico-chemical properties and heavy metals and metalloids in the ice sold in all the districts of Karachi, Pakistan. This pioneering study was an innovative effort to assess the ice quality in relation to potential pollutant hazards to human health; with concomitant geospatial information. The geospatial distribution of ice quality and major constituents were among the measured parameters; carefully associated with further geospatial information, determined using GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and PCA (Principal Component Analysis) techniques. Interestingly, the physicochemical analyses revealed that the ice quality was marginally adequate and the total mean metal-metalloid contents were in the sequence of Pb > Ni > Zn > Fe > Cr > As. The concentrations of these metals were above the upper allowable limits with reference to the recommended WHO guidelines. We observed that 57.1% and 35.7% ice samples had good physicochemical properties assessed using the Ice Quality Index (IQI). Conversely, the IQI for metals showed that the ice was unsafe for human consumption. In terms of health risk assessment, the overall mean CDI (Chronic Daily Intake) and HQ (Hazard Quotient) values were in the order of Pb () > Ni (3.2) > Zn (2.3) > Fe (2.1) > Cr (1.6) > As (0.5) and Pb (7.4) > As (1.7) > Cr (0.5) > Ni (0.4 > Zn (0.008) > Fe (0.003), respectively. This study highlighted that routine monitoring of the water supplies available for making ice is required to protect public health.


Ice quality; Health; Contamination; Risk; Metals; Metalloids

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2024, Volym: 10, nummer: 7, artikelnummer: e28252

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    Miljömedicin och yrkesmedicin

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