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Forskningsartikel2024Vetenskapligt granskadÖppen tillgång

Sampling Protocol for Measuring Mean Diameter at Breast Height of Forked Urban Trees

Bilous, Andrii; Zadorozhniuk, Roman; Makarevych, Anatolii; Svynchuk, Viktor; Lashko, Andrii; Bilous, Maksym; Myroniuk, Viktor; Matsala, Maksym


The sustainable management of urban green areas requires clear and efficient protocols for measuring the biometric properties of tree vegetation. Specifically, operational in situ sampling solutions are essential to inventory forked (multi-stemmed) trees. This study aimed to assess the efficiency of two different sampling protocols for mean tree diameter at breast height (DBH) measurement of forked urban trees. The protocols were tested on a dataset of 76 forked trees, each having more than three stems and sampled in urban areas of Kyiv, Ukraine. First, we tested the efficiency of mean tree DBH estimations using measurements of randomly selected one, two, or three stems (random sampling, or RSM). Second, we examined different combinations of the thinnest, thickest, and average stems (identified visually) for each tree to estimate mean tree DBH (targeted sampling, or TSM). The distributions of mean tree DBH and root mean square errors (RMSE) were utilized to compare the utility of the two approaches. The TSM of three stems (the thinnest, thickest, and average) provided the highest accuracy of mean tree DBH estimation (RMSE% = 6.3% of the mean), compared to the RSM (RMSE% = 12.1%). The TSM of the four thickest stems demonstrated the overestimation of mean tree DBH for forked trees with five or more stems. Accurate mean tree DBH estimates can be derived with negligible systematic errors applying the RSM over a large number of measured trees. However, these estimates will not likely match the measurements from previous inventories due to random stem selection. We recommend using the TSM with measuring three specific stems as a balanced solution in terms of estimation accuracy, bias, and time costs.


urban trees; DBH; tree inventory; targeted sampling; random sampling; multi-stemmed trees

Publicerad i

2024, Volym: 15, nummer: 3, artikelnummer: 458
Utgivare: MDPI