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Översiktsartikel2024Vetenskapligt granskad

Antibiotics in semen extenders – a multiplicity of paradoxes

Morrell, Jane; Cojkic, Aleksandar; Malaluang, Pongpreecha; Ntallaris, Theodoros; Lindahl, Johanna; Hansson, Ingrid


Addition of antibiotics to semen extenders was taken for granted for many years, from the time that commercial artificial insemination in livestock first began many decades ago. However, there is now a growing realisation that this non-therapeutic utilisation of antibacterial agents is contrary to current recommendations for prudent use that medical and veterinary professionals are advised to follow. Furthermore, antibiotics are not benign, having negative effects on sperm samples, the inseminated female, personnel and potentially the environment. The purpose of this review is three-fold: to highlight the fact that antibiotics are used in semen extenders, with the result that considerable amounts are used globally in animal breeding, to review recent studies on the negative aspects of using antibiotics for this purpose, and to look at possible alternatives. Recent changes in the legislation regarding semen extenders occurred in some, but not all, countries, leaving question marks for semen producers as to whether antibiotics should be added to semen extenders or not.


antimicrobial resistance; bacteria; colloid centrifugation; genotypic resistance; legislation; minimum inhibitory concentrations; One Health; sperm quality

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Reproduction, Fertility and Development
2024, Volym: 36, nummer: 5, artikelnummer: RD23218