Skip to main content
SLU:s publikationsdatabas (SLUpub)

Forskningsartikel2020Vetenskapligt granskadÖppen tillgång

Tensions in future development of organic production—views of stakeholders on Organic 3.0

Milestad, R.; Röös, E.; Stenius, T.; Wivstad, M.


This study analysed Swedish stakeholders’ views on future developments of organic production and consumption based on Organic 3.0, a strategic initiative by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM). Focus group discussions were carried out with actors representing different parts of the organic value chain in Sweden. These identified a number of tensions, four of which represented an unresolved dichotomy in the way forward for the organic movement and its relevance for organic production in most settings. The first tension was between the drive for increased efficiency to achieve higher yields and an agroecological approach with broader sustainability values. The second concerned availability of plant nutrients in organic agriculture including safe recirculating of nutrients from society. The third tension set new technology against the precautionary principle and the notion of naturalness. The fourth concerned the role of organic as an innovation system; whether organic should be a forerunner, i.e. performing well above average and fostering innovation, or whether organic should be a broader movement including more farmers but then requiring more regulations that may hinder innovation. These tensions will result in important choices on direction for the organic sector as it pursues the Organic 3.0 goal of sustainably feeding a growing population based on farming systems based on organic principles.


Agroecology; Innovation; Naturalness; Nutrient recycling; Organic regulations; Sweden

Publicerad i

Organic Agriculture
2020, Volym: 10, nummer: 4, sidor: 509-519
Utgivare: Springer Science and Business Media B.V.