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Research article2008Peer reviewedOpen access

Population diversity of Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria in pig feed fermented with whey, wet wheat distillers' grains, or water at different temperatures

Olstorpe, Matilda; Lyberg, Karin; Lindberg, Jan Erik; Schnurer, Johan; Passoth, Volkmar


The diversity of populations of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in pig feeds fermented at 10, 15, or 20 degrees C was characterized by rRNA gene sequencing of isolates. The feeds consisted of a cereal grain mix blended with wet wheat distillers' grains (WWDG feed), whey (W feed), or tap water (WAT feed). Fermentation proceeded for 5 days without disturbance, followed by 14 days of daily simulated feed outtakes, in which 80% of the contents were replaced with fresh feed mixtures. In WWDG feed, Pichia galeiformis became the dominant yeast species, independent of the fermentation temperature and feed change. The LAB population was dominated by Pediococcus pentosaceus at the start of the fermentation period. After 3 days, the Lactobacillus plantarum population started to increase in feeds at all temperatures. The diversity of LAB increased after the addition of fresh feed components. In W feed, Kluyveromyces marxianus dominated, but after the feed change, the population diversity increased. With increasing fermentation temperatures, there was a shift toward Pichia membranifaciens as the dominant species. L. plantarum was the most prevalent LAB in W feed. The WAT feed had a diverse microbial flora, and the yeast population changed throughout the whole fermentation period. Pichia anomala was the most prevalent yeast species, with increasing occurrence at higher fermentation temperatures. Pediococcus pentosaceus was the most prevalent LAB, but after the feed change, L. plantarum started to proliferate. The present study demonstrates that the species composition in fermented pig feed may vary considerably, even if viable cell counts indicate stable microbial populations.

Published in

Applied and Environmental Microbiology
2008, Volume: 74, number: 6, pages: 1696-1703