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Forskningsartikel2009Vetenskapligt granskadÖppen tillgång

Uptake and biotransformation of structurally diverse brominated flame retardants in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after dietary exposure

Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt; Norman, Anna; Norrgren, Leif; Haglund, Peter; Andersson, Patrik L.


Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed a diet containing a mixture of 11 structurally diverse brominated flame retardants (BFRs) at nominal concentrations of either 1 or 100 nmol/g for up to 42 d, followed by an elimination period of 14 d. Uptake rates and elimination constants for five of the BFRs were calculated from measurements of their concentrations in the male fish during the exposure and elimination phases. Observed uptake efficiencies were highest for 2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE 28) and 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl) cyclohexane (TBECH) and were lowest for decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209). Estimated half-lives for TBECH and 2,4,6-tribromophenol were short (<2 d). Four BFR metabolites were identified in the fish: 2,2',3,4',5',6-Hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 149), 2,2', 4,4', 5,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 154), 2,4,6-tribromoanisole, and 1,2,4,5-hexabromobenzene. These metabolites were still present in the zebrafish after the 14-d elimination period. No relationship between the BFR concentrations in the zebrafish and their log octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW)) values was found. Generally, low tendencies to bioaccumulate were observed for perbrominated and hydroxylated compounds. The observed accumulation of BFR metabolites in fish, however, shows that low concentration of a BFR does not provide, in isolation, a sound indication that the BFR poses low risks.


Brominated flame retardants; Fish; Accumulation; Elimination; Metabolites

Publicerad i

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
2009, Volym: 28, nummer: 5, sidor: 1035-1042