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Research article2009Peer reviewedOpen access

Dose response of whole-grain biomarkers: alkylresorcinols in human plasma and their metabolites in urine in relation to intake

Landberg, Rikard; Aman, Per; Friberg, Lena E.; Vessby, Bengt; Adlercreutz, Herman; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf


Background: Alkylresorcinols (ARs), phenolic lipids almost exclusively present in the outer parts of wheat and rye grains in commonly consumed foods, have been proposed as specific dietary biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intakes.Objective: The objective was to assess the dose response of plasma ARs and the excretion of 2 recently discovered AR metabolites in 24-h urine samples in relation to AR intake and to establish a pharmacokinetic model for predicting plasma AR concentration.Design: Sixteen subjects were given rye bran flakes containing 11, 22, or 44 mg total ARs 3 times daily during week-long intervention periods separated by 1-wk washout periods in a nonblinded randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after the 1-wk run- in period, and after each treatment and washout period. Two 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline and after each treatment period.Results: Plasma AR concentrations and daily excretion of 2 urinary AR metabolites increased with increasing AR dose (P < 0.001). Recovery of urinary metabolites in 24-h samples decreased with increasing doses from approximate to 90% to approximate to 45% in the range tested. A one-compartment model with 2 absorption compartments with different lag times and absorption rate constants adequately predicted plasma AR concentrations at the end of each intervention period.Conclusion: Both plasma AR concentrations and urinary metabolites in 24-h samples showed a dose-response relation to increased AR intake, which strongly supports the hypothesis that ARs and their metabolites may be useful as biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intakes. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89: 290-6.

Published in

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
2009, Volume: 89, number: 1, pages: 290-296