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Research article2009Peer reviewed

Interaction effects of fermentation time and added asparagine and glycine on acrylamide content in yeast-leavened bread

Mustafa, Arwa; Fink, Martin; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Rosen, Johan; Andersson, Roger; Aman, Per


The interaction effects of fermentation time and added asparagine and glycine on acrylamide precursors (asparagine and reducing sugars) in dough and content of acrylamide in yeast-leavened wheat bread were Studied. Two experiments, with low and high levels of added asparagine (0-0.044 and 0.071-0.476 g/100 g flour, respectively), were performed. Glycine was added (0.042-0.380 g/100 g flour) only in the high asparagine addition experiment. The fermentation time, which was varied between 13 and 164 min, showed a reducing effect on acrylamide precursors in the dough ill both experiments (p < 0.001). These effects of fermentation were more pronounced in the experiment with low asparagine levels, which resembled levels in ingredients. In contrast, fermentation time did not affect the content of glycine in the dough. Added asparagine increased the levels of asparagine in dough and of acrylamide in bread (p < 0,001). A strong correlation was found between the contents of asparagine in the fermented dough and acrylamide in breads at all levels of asparagine, Glycine significantly increased the colour intensity and reduced the acrylamide in bread (p < 0.001) with the latter effect being dependent on the level of asparagine. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Acrylamide; Fermentation time; Asparagine; Glycine; Reducing sugars; Bread colour

Published in

Food Chemistry
2009, Volume: 112, number: 4, pages: 767-774