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Rapport1987Öppen tillgång

Studier i plöjningsfri odling i Sverige 1975-1986

Rydberg, Tomas


The research described in this report forms part of the endeavour to draw up guidelines for successful implementation of ploughless tillage techniques (cultivation to 10 cm replacing ploughing). Results and experiences from over 120 field trials carried out during the period 1975-86 are presented in the first section. On average, use of ploughless tillage has meant reduced yields of winter wheat, spring barley, winter and spring oilseed rape and sugarbeet and somewhat improved yields of oats, first year grass leys and potatoes. The results from ploughless tillage were generally improved by use of twin mounted tractor tires instead of single mounted, placement of artificial fertilizer instead of broadcasting and removal of straw. Incidence of seeding weeds increased on average by 25 % and stoloniferous weeds by 100 %. Most suitable soils were peats, sandy Loamy tills, silty Loams or silty clay loams and heavy clays. The second section consists of results of soil physical and chemical investigations carried out during 1980-1984. Soil physical changes observed included increased compaction in mid-topsoil, improved saturated hydraulic conductivity in the Lower topsoil and upper subsoil and improved aggregate stability in the seedbed. Reduced rate of evaporation Was also recorded in a pilot investigation. Soil chemical investigations showed increased Levels of readily-soluble phosphorus and potassium in the surface Layer and reduced Levels in mid- and Lower topsoil. Humus content also increased in the surface Layer and decreased in mid- and Lower topsoil. No relationship was found between pH and cultivation technique. On the basis of the results obtained, a procedure to evaluate site suitability for ploughless tillage is described. The effects of ploughless tillage on root development and evaporation were investigated in 1985 and results from these investigations are described in a third section of this report. Root studies showed that root development was invariably obstructed in mid-topsoil, an effect ascribed to high mechanical resistance. Studies on evaporation showed that ploughless tillage, in contrast to conventional tillage, gave a better effect of reduced evaporation after a wet followed by a dry period than after a wholly dry period. It was also shown that superficial incorporation of harvest residues gave a better effect of reduced evaporation on a silty clay Loam than on a heavy clay. In conclusion, results and experiences obtained from these investigations are used to suggest practical measures for best applying ploughless tillage while minimizing those problems arising when soil is no Longer ploughed annually


jordbearbetning; reducerad bearbetning; fältförsök; skörd; dubbelmontage; markfysikaliska undersökningar; markkemiska undersökningar; hydraulisk konduktivitet; rotutveckling; skörderester

Publicerad i

Rapporter från Jordbearbetningsavdelningen, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet
1987, nummer: 76ISBN: 91-576-3148-4
Utgivare: Institutionen för markvetenskap, Avdelningen för jordbearbetning, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet