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Research article2004Peer reviewed

Effects of asparagine, fructose, and baking conditions on acrylamide content in yeast-leavened wheat bread

Surdyk N, Rosen J, Andersson R, Aman P


A repeatable procedure for studying the effects of internal and external factors on acrylamide content in yeast-leavened wheat bread has been developed. The dough contained wheat endosperm flour with a low content of precursors for acrylamide formation (asparagine and reducing sugars), dry yeast, salt, and water. The effects of asparagine and fructose, added to the dough, were studied in an experiment with a full factorial design. More than 99% of the acrylamide was found in the crust. Added asparagine dramatically increased the content of acrylamide in crusts dry matter (from about 80 mug/kg to between 600 and 6000 mug/kg) while added fructose did not influence the content. The effects of temperature and time of baking were studied in another experiment using a circumscribed central composite design. Mainly temperature (above 200 degreesC) but also time increased the acrylamide content in crust dry matter (from below 10 to 1900 mug/kg), and a significant interaction was found between these two factors. When baked at different conditions with the same ingredients, a highly significant relationship (P < 0.001) between color and acrylamide content in crust was found. Added asparagine, however, did not increase color, showing that mainly other amino compounds are involved in the browning reactions

Published in

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
2004, Volume: 52, number: 7, pages: 2047-2051