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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2009

Thymidine kinase 1 expression defines an activated G1 state of the cell cycle as revealed with site-specific antibodies and ArrayScan (TM) assays

Gasparri, F; Wang, N; Skog, S; Galvani, A; Eriksson, Staffan


Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a DNA salvage enzyme involved in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate needed during S phase. Although TK1 has been utilized as a cell proliferation marker for many years no well-characterized antibodies are available. The preparation and properties of two types of poly- and monoclonal anti-TK1 peptide antibodies are described and they are used to determine the levels of TK1 in intact cells. Expression of TK1, c-fos, cyclin B1, Ki67, phosphorylated histone H3, phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6, as well as bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in human normal dermal fibroblast cultures were studied with high-content ArrayScan (TM) fluorescence microscopy. The levels of TK1 increased 6-7h after serum re-addition to starved cells as they passed through G1, S and G2/M phases, which was earlier than the increase in Ki67 protein levels and before BrdU incorporation was detected. Thus, a population of activated G1 cells with high TK1 and low Ki67 expression could be identified and their role in cell proliferation can now be clarified. (C) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


Cell cycle; Biomarkers; Thymidine kinase; G1 cells; Monoclonal antibodies; Immunofluorescence

Published in

European Journal of Cell Biology
2009, Volume: 88, number: 12, pages: 779-785

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    Animal and Dairy Science
    Veterinary Science

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