Skip to main content
SLU publication database (SLUpub)

Research article2016Peer reviewed

Whole-grain rye, refined wheat, and whole-grain wheat breads influence metabolic fingerprints differently in pigs

Ivarsson, E.; Saenbungkhor, N.; Agback, P.; Lindberg, J. E.; Moazzami, A.; Dicksved, J.


The aim of this study was to compare the influence of whole-grain rye bread (WGRB), whole-grain wheat bread (WGWB), and refined wheat bread (WB) on the gut metabolic fingerprint to increase the understanding of the mechanism behind health aspects related to whole-grain products. Five pigs with an initial weight of 46 kg were used in a changeover design, with 3 diets and 3 periods. The experimental diets consisted of WGRB, WGWB, and WB and were balanced with similar content of dietary fiber (adjusted with cellulose), protein, and fat. Each diet period lasted for 7 d. Fecal samples were collected during Days 4 through 7 in each experimental period. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to analyze metabolic profiles from the fecal samples. Principal component analysis of metabolic fingerprints showed that the type of bread influenced the metabolic profile and that WGRB influenced metabolic profiles differently compared with WGWB (P = 0.03) and WB (P = 0.04). Quantification of the shortchain fatty acids in the NMR data revealed differences with higher concentrations of lactate (P = 0.04) and lower molar proportions of acetate (P = 0.03) in rye bread compared with wheat breads.


dietary fiber; metabolome; pig; rye; wheat; whole-grain bread

Published in

Journal of Animal Science
2016, Volume: 94, number: supplement 3, pages: 161-163