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Forskningsartikel2018Vetenskapligt granskad

Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Swedish Groundwater and Surface Water: Implications for Environmental Quality Standards and Drinking Water Guidelines

Gobelius, Laura; Hedlund, Johanna; Duerig, Wiebke; Troger, Rikard; Lilja, Karl; Wiberg, Karin; Ahrens, Lutz


The aim of this study was to assess per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the Swedish aquatic environment, identify emission sources, and compare measured concentrations with environmental quality standards (EQS) and (drinking) water guideline values. In total, 493 samples were analyzed in 2015 for 26 PFASs (Sigma(26)PFASs) in surface water, groundwater, landfill leachate, sewage treatment plant effluents and reference lakes, focusing on hot spots and drinking water sources. Highest Sigma(26)PFAS concentrations were detected in surface water (13 000 ng L-1) and groundwater (6400 ng L-1). The dominating fraction of PFASs in surface water were perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs; 64% of Sigma(26)PFASs), with high contributions from C-4-C-8 PFCAs (94% of Sigma PFCAs), indicating high mobility of shorter chain PFCAs. In inland surface water, the annual average (AA)-EQS of the EU Water Framework Directive of 0.65 ng L-1 for Sigma PFOS (linear and branched isomers) was exceeded in 46% of the samples. The drinking water guideline value of 90 ng L-1 for Sigma(11)PFASs recommended by the Swedish EPA was exceeded in 3% of the water samples from drinking water sources (n = 169). The branched isomers had a noticeable fraction in surface- and groundwater for perfluorooctanesulfonamide, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanesulfonate, highlighting the need to include branched isomers in future guidelines.

Publicerad i

Environmental Science and Technology
2018, Volym: 52, nummer: 7, sidor: 4340-4349