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Forskningsartikel2018Vetenskapligt granskad

Concentrations, fluxes and field calibration of passive water samplers for pesticides and hazard-based risk assessment

Ahrens, Lutz; Daneshvar, Atlasi; Lau, Anna E.; Kreuger, Jenny

Sammanfattning

Three passive sampler types including Chemcatcher (R) C-18, polar organic chemical integrative sampler-hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (POCIS-HLB) and silicone rubber (SR) based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were evaluated for 124 legacy and current used pesticides at two sampling locations in southern Sweden over a period of 6weeks and compared to time-proportional composite active sampling. In addition, an in situ calibration was performed resulting in median in situ sampling rates (R-S, Lday(-1)) of 0.01 for Chemcatcher (R) C-18, 0.03 for POCIS-HLB, and 0.18 for SR, and median in situ passive sampler-water partition coefficients (log K-PW, Lkg(-1)) of 2.76 for Chemcatcher (R) C-18, 3.87 for POCIS-HLB, and 2.64 for SR. Deisopropylatrazine D-5 showed to be suitable as a performance reference compound (PRC) for SR. There was a good agreement between the pesticide concentrations using passive and active sampling. However, the three passive samplers detected 38 pesticides (including 9 priority substances from the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) and 2 pyrethriods) which were not detected by the active sampler. The most frequently detected pesticides with a detection frequency of >90% for both sites were atrazine, 2,6-dichlorobenzamide, bentazone, chloridazon, isoproturon, and propiconazole. The annual average environmental quality standard (AA-EQS) for inland surface waters of the EU WFD and the risk quotient (RQ) of 1 was exceeded on a number of occasions indicating potential risk for the aquatic environment. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Nyckelord

Passive sampling; Priority substances; Pesticides; POCIS; silicone rubber; Chemcatcher

Publicerad i

Science of the Total Environment
2018, Volym: 637, sidor: 835-843
Utgivare: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV