Composition and properties of bovine milk: A study from dairy farms in northern Sweden; Part II. Effect of monthly variationPriyashantha, Hasitha; Lundh, Ase; Hojer, Annika; Bernes, Gun; Nilsson, David; Hetta, Marten; Saeden, Karin Hallin; Gustafsson, Anders H.; Johansson, Monika;
This study investigated the influence of monthly variation on the composition and properties of raw farm milk collected as part of a full-scale cheese-making trial in a region in northern Sweden. In our companion paper, the contribution of on-farm factors to the variation in milk quality attributes is described. In total, 42 dairy farms were recruited for the study, and farm milk samples were collected monthly over 1 yr and characterized for quality attributes of importance for cheese making. Principal component analysis suggested that milk samples collected during the outdoor period (June-September) were different from milk samples collected during the indoor period. Despite the interaction with the milking system, the results showed that fat and protein concentrations were lower in milk collected during May through August, and lactose concentration was higher in milk collected during April through July than for the other months. Concentrations of free fatty acids were generally low, with the highest value (0.86 mmol/100 g of fat) observed in February and the lowest (0.70 mmol/100 g of fat) observed in June. Plasmin and plasminogen-derived activities varied with sampling month without a clear seasonal pattern. The pH of farm tank milk ranged from 6.60 to 6.82, with the lowest and highest values in September and February, respectively. The highest somatic cell count was observed in August (201 x 10(3) cells/mL) and the lowest in April (143 x 10(3) cells/mL). The highest value of gel strength, was recorded in December (88 Pa) and the lowest in July (64 Pa). Rennet coagulation time and gel strength were inversely correlated, with the lowest rennet coagulation time value observed in December. Orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) and discriminant analysis adaptation of OPLS identified casein micelle size and total proteolysis as the milk quality attributes with major responses to sampling month, with smaller casein micelle size and higher total proteolysis associated with the outdoor months. Using discriminant analysis adaptation of OPLS to further investigate causes behind the variation in milk traits revealed that there were factors in addition to feeding on pasture that differed between outdoor and indoor months. Because fresh grass was seldom the primary feed in the region during the outdoor period, grazing was not considered the sole reason for the observed difference between outdoor and indoor periods in raw milk quality attributes.
season; monthly variation; raw milk characteristic; total proteolysis; casein micelle size
Published inJournal of Dairy Science 2021, volume: 104, number: 8, pages: 8595-8609
Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
UKÄ Subject classification
Animal and Dairy Science
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